Correlation, coincidence and causation: three words that are often confused.
Two things happen together – either at the same time, or sequentially. Why?
This is a correlation, and the natural human tendency is to assume that there is a reason for the correation; that something caused the two events to occur together. Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky identified this as resulting from one of the more common cognitive biases that humans are prone to: “the representativeness bias“.
This bias in the way we think creates patterns in our minds that link events in a way that follow established (or merely perceived) rules. So, when two things occur one after the other, we perceive causation, because it conforms better to our perceptions of how the world works. When two things coincide, we think there must be a reason, and when we spot statistical anomalies, we suspect that something must be going on.
In the UK, the ratio of boys to girls (under 16 years of age) is approximately 51% to 49%. I don’t think anyone really knows why the gender ratio at birth (allowing for selective terminations) is not 1:1. The 51:49 ration does seem to be fairly universal in humans.
But what if we found a town with a ratio of 45:55, or an occupation with 59:41? Would we think there is something in the water, or some occupational hazard affecting reproductive processes?
In fact, in the 1990s, someone measured the proportion of boys to girls among the children of Israeli fighter pilots 16:84. Since the fighter pilots were all men a the time, what was their occupation doing to their Y chromosome?
However, any sample is likely to diverge from the average. Take enough samples and some will diverge a lot. Taken on its own, that sample will look so odd that something must be going on. Taken with thousands of other samples and all you have is an outlier. But it is the outliers that we notice.
Two things happen together: there are three possibilities
- Coincidence – things do happen together
- Direct Causation – the two things are related, so that one triggers the other
- Indirect Causation – the two things are each related to a third thing, that trigger each